It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in GermanyAustriaSwitzerlandSouth Tyrol in Italy, and Liechtenstein.
It is also a co-official language of Luxembourg and Belgium specifically in the German-speaking Communityand a national language in Namibia. It also contains close similarities in vocabulary to DanishNorwegianand Swedishalthough these belong to the North Germanic group.
German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language after English. German has also been influential the fields of science and technology, where it is the second most commonly used scientific language and the third most widely used language on websites after English and Russian. The German-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books including e-books in the world being published in German.
German is an inflected languagewith four cases for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives nominative, accusative, genitive, dative ; three genders masculine, feminine, neuter ; and two numbers singular, plural.
It has strong and weak verbs. The majority of its vocabulary derives from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family, while a smaller share is partly derived from Latin and Greekalong with fewer words borrowed from French and Modern English. It is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialectswith many varieties existing in Europe and other parts of the world. Some of these non-standard varieties have become recognized and protected by regional or national governments.
Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard Germanas well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific distinction between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups e. Low German or Plautdietsch can be described as either "languages" or "dialects". The first of these branches survives in modern DanishSwedishNorwegianFaroeseand Icelandicall of which are descended from Old Norse.
The East Germanic languages are now extinct, and Gothic is the only language in this branch which survives in written texts.
Levels of German Language
The West Germanic languages, however, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English, German, DutchYiddishAfrikaansand others. As members of the West Germanic language family, High German, Low German, and Low Franconian have been proposed to be further distinguished historically as IrminonicIngvaeonicand Istvaeonicrespectively.
This classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones also known as the Elbe groupIngvaeones or North Sea Germanic groupand Istvaeones or Weser-Rhine group.Calendario prova orale classe 5 as / v bs
German is therefore closely related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish based on Central Franconian dialects and Yiddish. After these High German dialects, standard German is less closely related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects e. As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic; the differences between these languages and standard German are therefore considerable.
These Anglo-Frisian dialects did not take part in the High German consonant shift. The history of the German language begins with the High German consonant shift during the migration periodwhich separated Old High German dialects from Old Saxon.Cg khadya vibhag toll free number
This sound shift involved a drastic change in the pronunciation of both voiced and voiceless stop consonants bdgand ptkrespectively. The primary effects of the shift were the following below. While there is written evidence of the Old High German language in several Elder Futhark inscriptions from as early as the sixth century AD such as the Pforzen bucklethe Old High German period is generally seen as beginning with the Abrogans written c.
After the Abrogansthe first coherent works written in Old High German appear in the ninth century, chief among them being the Muspillithe Merseburg Charmsand the Hildebrandsliedand other religious texts the Georgsliedthe Ludwigsliedthe Evangelienbuchand translated hymns and prayers.
Of particular interest to scholars, however, has been the Hildebrandslieda secular epic poem telling the tale of an estranged father and son unknowingly meeting each other in battle. Linguistically this text is highly interesting due to the mixed use of Old Saxon and Old High German dialects in its composition.
The written works of this period stem mainly from the AlamanniBavarianand Thuringian groups, all belonging to the Elbe Germanic group Irminoneswhich had settled in what is now southern-central Germany and Austria between the second and sixth centuries during the great migration. In general, the surviving texts of OHG show a wide range of dialectal diversity with very little written uniformity. The early written tradition of OHG survived mostly through monasteries and scriptoria as local translations of Latin originals; as a result, the surviving texts are written in highly disparate regional dialects and exhibit significant Latin influence, particularly in vocabulary.
The German language through the OHG period was still predominantly a spoken language, with a wide range of dialects and a much more extensive oral tradition than a written one. Having just emerged from the High German consonant shift, OHG was also a relatively new and volatile language still undergoing a number of phoneticphonologicalmorphologicaland syntactic changes.
The scarcity of written work, instability of the language, and widespread illiteracy of the time explain the lack of standardization up to the end of the OHG period in While there is no complete agreement over the dates of the Middle High German MHG period, it is generally seen as lasting from to Whereas during the Old High German period the Germanic tribes extended only as far east as the Elbe and Saale rivers, the MHG period saw a number of these tribes expanding beyond this eastern boundary into Slavic territory known as the Ostsiedlung.
With the increasing wealth and geographic spread of the Germanic groups came greater use of German in the courts of nobles as the standard language of official proceedings and literature. While these efforts were still regionally bound, German began to be used in place of Latin for certain official purposes, leading to a greater need for regularity in written conventions.It was put together by the Council of Europe as the main part of the project "Language Learning for European Citizenship" between and Its main aim is to provide a method of learning, teaching and assessing which applies to all languages in Europe.
The six reference levels A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2 are becoming widely accepted as the European standard for grading an individual's language proficiency. A project followed to develop language-level classifications for certification to be recognized across Europe. The CEFR is also intended to make it easier for educational institutions and employers to evaluate the language qualifications of candidates to education admission or employment.
This draft version was piloted in a number of projects, which included linking a single test to the CEFR, linking suites of exams at different levels, and national studies by exam boards and research institutes. Practitioners and academics shared their experiences at a colloquium in Cambridge inand the pilot case studies and findings were published in Studies in Language Testing SiLT.
The CEFR divides general competences in knowledgeskillsand existential competence with particular communicative competences in linguistic competencesociolinguistic competenceand pragmatic competence. This division does not exactly match previously well-known notions of communicative competencebut correspondences among them can be made. The CEFR has three principal dimensions: language activities, the domains in which the language activities occur, and the competencies on which we draw when we engage in them.
The CEFR distinguishes among four kinds of language activities: reception listening and readingproduction spoken and writteninteraction spoken and writtenand mediation translating and interpreting. General and particular communicative competences are developed by producing or receiving texts in various contexts under various conditions and constraints.Sposarsi in italia residenti in uk
These contexts correspond to various sectors of social life that the CEFR calls domains. Four broad domains are distinguished: educational, occupational, public, and personal. These largely correspond to register. The Common European Framework divides learners into three broad divisions that can each be further divided into two levels; for each level, it describes what a learner is supposed to be able to do in reading, listening, speaking and writing.
The following table indicates these levels. A more thorough description of each level, with criteria for listening, reading, speaking, and writing, is available on the Internet.
These descriptors can apply to any of the languages spoken in Europe, and there are translations in many languages. Educational bodies for various languages have offered estimates for the amount of study needed to reach levels in the relevant language.
Multiple organizations have been created to serve as an umbrella for language schools and certification businesses that claim compatibility with the CEFR. In Germany, Telc, a non-profit agency, is the federal government's exclusive partner for language tests taken at the end of the integration courses for migrants, following the CEFR standards.
This agrees with a table published by the American University Center of Provence giving the following correspondences: . However, a comparison between the ILR self-assessment grids reading,  speaking,  listening  and the CEFR assessment grid  could suggest a different equivalence: . Canada increasingly uses the CEFR in a few domains. Universities increasingly structure their courses around the CEFR levels.
A more recent document by Macdonald and Vandergrift  estimates the following correspondences for oral ability between the Public Service Commission levels and the CEFR levels:.
Language schools may also propose their own equivalence tables. Language schools and certificate bodies evaluate their own equivalences against the framework. The CEFR methodology has been extended to describe and evaluate the proficiency of users of programming languageswhen the programming activity is considered as a language activity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Council of Europe. Retrieved 18 September Archived from the original on 28 January Also available as PDF. Retrieved 28 March Retrieved 27 July Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 5 December Find out by completing 15 different tasks how good your German language knowledge is right now with our brandnew Free German Language Test on the ActiLingua Website.
On to the test. Enjoy our new video lessons and learn in 12 lessons about German grammar with our German Teacher Sisi. On to Video-Lessons. The Common European Framework of Reference as issued by the European Commission is the basis for the advancement of European multilingualism.
Binding levels of competency were developed for the German language on the basis of this framework. After a written assessment test and an oral assessment interview you are placed in the appropriate level. The written assessment test takes approximately 60 minutes and covers grammar, reading comprehension and writing skills.
It is included in your booking materials or available online. Please return the placement test by email after receiving your booking confirmation, otherwise it is possible that you might miss the first day's classes of your German course.
You have little knowledge of German. You learn how to make simple enquiries in speaking and writing, and to give instructions. You build on your basic grammar skills and increase your vocabulary.
You have some knowledge of German. You learn how to express yourself adequately in familiar, everyday situations and to read and understand simple texts.
Your basic German skills are incomplete.Tang meaning in kannada
You consolidate and revise basic grammar structures, and learn to lead discussions on interesting topics. You have a command of the essentials of German. You practise reading, writing and discussing difficult topics and work-related issues. You have a good command of German. You learn to express yourself clearly both in speaking and writing on a large number of topics and to understand almost all texts.
You can express yourself fluently in German.Various types of such exams exist per many languages—some are organized at an international level even through national authoritative organizations, while others simply for specific limited business or study orientation. They are officially recognised as university entrance qualifications. Other tests may be considered, but no guarantees are given.
In other German-speaking countries the situation varies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources.
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Archived from the original on 8 May Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 4 April Archived from the original on 21 April The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about million people [nb 1] mainly in EuropeNorth AmericaOceania and Southern Africa. The most widely spoken Germanic language, Englishis the world's most widely spoken language with an estimated 2 billion speakers.
The West Germanic languages include the three most widely spoken Germanic languages: English with around — million native speakers;  [nb 2] Germanwith over million native speakers;  and Dutchwith 24 million native speakers.
Other West Germanic languages include Afrikaansan offshoot of Dutch, with over 7. Other North Germanic languages are Faroese and Icelandicwhich are more conservative languages with no significant Low German influence, more complex grammar and limited mutual intelligibility with the others today.
The last to die off was Crimean Gothicspoken until the late 18th century in some isolated areas of Crimea. Some of the West Germanic languages also did not survive past the Migration Period, including Lombardic.The 16 German Federal States - Easy German 384
As a result of World War II and subsequent mass expulsion of Germansthe German language suffered a significant loss of Sprachraumas well as moribundity and extinction of several of its dialects. In the 21st century, its dialects are dying out [nb 3] due to Standard German gaining primacy.
Deutsche Sprachprüfung für den Hochschulzugang
The common ancestor of all of the languages in this branch is called Proto-Germanicalso known as Common Germanic, which was spoken in about the middle of the 1st millennium BC in Iron Age Scandinavia.
Proto-Germanic, along with all of its descendants, notably has a number of unique linguistic features, most famously the consonant change known as " Grimm's law.
LuciaGrenadaBarbadosSt. Furthermore, it is the de facto language of the United Kingdomthe United States and Australiaas well as a recognized language in Nicaragua  and Malaysia. American English -speakers make up the majority of all native Germanic speakers, including also making up the bulk of West Germanic speakers. German also continues to be spoken as a minority language by immigrant communities in North America, South America, Central America, Mexico and Australia.
A German dialect, Pennsylvania Germanis still used among various populations in the American state of Pennsylvania in daily life. Today, it is only used by older or traditionally educated people. Dutch was until an official language in South Africa but evolved in and was replaced by Afrikaansa partially mutually intelligible  daughter language of Dutch. Afrikaans is one of the 11 official languages in South Africa and is a lingua franca of Namibia. It is used in other Southern African nations, as well.
Low German is a collection of very diverse dialects spoken in the northeast of the Netherlands and northern Germany. Scots is spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots.
Frisian is spoken among half a million people who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. Luxembourgish is a Moselle Franconian dialect that is spoken mainly in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourgwhere it is considered to be an official language.It aims at people who would like to study at, or academics and scientists who want to work in, German universities.
The test is run by the TestDaF-Institut. The test can be taken in 95 different countries around the world. The test covers listening comprehension, reading comprehension, writing and speaking, and is recognised by German universities as proof of prospective students' ability. The certificate is valid for an unlimited period of time. A standardised language examination for foreign students enrolling in German universities was first proposed in during the Conference of the Cultural Minister Kultusministerkonferenz.
The project began on 1 August Before 31 July three modal tests had been drafted and were tested worldwide. The performance description, marking criteria and evaluation procedures were worked out and an item bank for prototypea database of participants and a test database were all set up. On 26 Aprilthe TestDaF was taken for the first time. The primary target group of the TestDaf examination is the student applicants who have obtained their qualification in foreign countries but want to continue their study in Germany.
There are also other target groups who would be interested to take the exam: . As TestDaf does not offer examinations in different levels, the question paper for all candidates are the same. Therefore, TestDaF is only suitable for advanced learners but not beginners.
All the topics and tasks in the test are set within the general context of higher education. The examination consists of 4 parts: . The examination as a whole lasts for 3 hours 10 minutes, not including the breaks.
The result of TestDaf is not marked as simply "pass" or "fail". Since the question papers are the same for candidates, and the test needs to separate the examinees into different levels, the results of the examinees are given in three different levels:  .
The test consists of four parts.It consists of a written and an oral examination, the written part being a precondition for the oral one. Students are allowed to repeat the exam as often as they want,  and they can use a German—German dictionary during the written examinations. The grading scale of DSH is between 1—3 with 3 being the best possible grade. A detailed breakdown of the percentile achieved in each part of the examination will also be given on the certificate.
As a rule the oral examination lasts about 20 minutes. Some institutions offer the possibility of exonerating the oral examination by showing an excellent level on the written examination. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of general referencesbut it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.
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